/Subtype /Link x��\Ys�F�~���#xK�Ѝ=7�Yr2ʌ��L��-I�$�@)ʯ�gk�����n�r�����ś뛶�Vy�;�}��y�)������;�_/^��s�K��꼯���ᇷw�Λ���w����Y�ބ��:�R��|�:��o�,�t��aP� ���4J{:�χ��GqO��+�)��ѽy��v�p��i)О}Y⭖%4�>�ͶZ:���S�e6W��w}�QK�����. ... Research carried out reveals that humans can be exposed to microplastics via contaminated seafood (fish, shell-fish), salt and tap water. • Climate change Many species have already announced to be endangered due to anthropogenic activities. Man-made plastics are known as synthetic plastics. The study investigated plastic waste management practices in the rural households of the Kingdom of Eswatiniusing Zikhotheni and Zombodze Emuva communities as case study sites. Plastic waste is ubiquitous and is reported from the Arctic to the Antarctic, from the surface to sediment. /Resources 25 0 R Lithner et al. The primary cause of environmental pollution is the disposal of plastic wastes. 80% of plastic pollution originates from land-based sources with the rest coming Plastic pollution, harmful accumulation of synthetic plastic products in the environment. Nature. Plastics wastes are also harmful to human health; they may contain harmful acids which may lead to death. 9 0 obj The management of plastic waste is to be planned in such a manner that the plastic waste generated from various sources is suitably taken care of. endobj Land-based sources of plastic debris contribute 80% of the plastic debris in the marine environment, with densely populated or industrialised areas being the major sources due to littering, plastic bag usage and solid waste disposal, for example (Derraik, 2002). 2014. /BS 28 0 R Yellow text in the above graphic shows sources of plastic that eventually end up in the ocean. all be filtered out, making wastewater treatment p, distances floating in seawater, or sediment, Large plastic items, such as discarded fishing rope an, invertebrates, birds, mammals, and turtles, s, species by plastic debris can cause starvation, suff, Ingestion of plastics by aquatic organisms is one of the m, of plastic, which can accumulate in their digestive s, cause physical damage or blockage of the int, ‘environmentally relevant’ concentrations of, Plastic along shorelines creates an aesthetic iss, losses are associated with reduced tourism, vessel damage, impairment in marine environments, shipping, energy production, fishing, and a, Figure 2. Chlorinated hydrocarbons were also detected in snow, ice, lake water and sea water samples, in which rather high concentrations were found in snow and ice samples. Our results demonstrate that microplastic particles operate both chemically and physically on larval fish performance and development. /StructParent 101 Although some marine organisms have been shown to ingest plastic, few studies have investigated the ecological effects of plastic waste on animals. dumping (mismanaged plastic waste). Geographically, the five heaviest plastic polluters are P.R. Sixteen of the top 20 mismanaged plastic waste producers are low, (PET). Nature 536. Dieldrin and PCB levels are highest around Great Britain and DDT levels highest in the Baltic and Gulf of St. of plastic waste generation and management within the overall waste management system in the country or city, (ii) engage all relevant stakeholders for developing the plastic waste management strategy and its implementation, (iii) identify alternative actions and sustainable /BS 30 0 R These are also called e-waste, e-scrap, or waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). /Resources 13 0 R Sebille, et al. In the United States, Europe, Australia and Japan, plastics are, Mismanaged plastic (plastic dumped openly). In order to manage waste, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Solid Waste Act favor an integrated solid waste man-agement strategy that includes 1) reducing the amount This study can benefit the scholarly community, because it brings more light to freshwater ecosystems, while most sources in the field focus on marine ecosystems. USA 113, 2430–2435; 11. Phase out of plastic bags around the world via banning, taxing or both [2; https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/94/Plastic_bag_legislation.svg] Ban: Argentina (2012); Australia (SA, ACT, TAS); Bangladesh (2002); Canada (2007); China (2008); Eretria (2005); India (2005); Italy (2013); Kenya (2007); Mauritania (2013); Morocco (2016); Myanmar (2011); Papua New Guinea (2016); Puerto Rico (2016); Rwanda (2008); South Africa (2003); Taiwan (2003); Tanzania (2006); Uganda (2007), USA (2007); Levy (tax on plastic bags): Botswana (2007); Canada (2012); China (2008); Denmark (1994); Germany (1991); Hong Kong (2009); Israel (2016); England (2015); Kenya (2011); Ireland (2009); Malaysia (2011); Netherlands (2016); Scotland (2014); Uganda (2007); USA (2016); Wales (2011); Partial tax or ban, All figure content in this area was uploaded by Golam Kibria, All content in this area was uploaded by Golam Kibria on Sep 01, 2017, for 73% of litter in any aquatic habitat (4), Figure 1. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111913; 7. The aim of the study was to investigateplastic waste management practices employed by rural households through the identification of the types ofplastic waste generated, estimation of the average daily amount of generated plastics and establishing theirmanagement practices. It is important that you follow these steps in the order %PDF-1.4 Imperial College, London; Assessing and reviewing “Pollution and Climate change Impacts” on various sectors in Bangladesh, Australia, Asia and Africa including water security (drinking, irrigation and recreation), food secu, Sustainable management, adaptation, mitigation & climate change advocacy, The project is aimed to research and review on low carbon economic development (LCD) in Australia, the Asia-Pacific and Africa. Total. This paper therefore seeks to identify methods favorable for recycling plastic wastes in Nigeria as a tool for solution to diversification and for implementation. Plastic waste that enters the ocean, an issue that has galvanized many consumers, corporations and policymakers, poses a threat to marine life through entanglement, ingestion and contamination.13 Moreover, collecting ocean plastic waste can be extraordinarily challenging because it tends to fragment /Rect [196.5 59.8800010681 290.7600097656 69.3000030518] Eriksen et al. • Bushfire Environ. << • Climate-Smart Agriculture This review paper emphasizes the hazardous of single-use polyethylene shopping bags on the environment and the emerging trends to tackle the management of plastic wastes. Mismanaged plastic (plastic dumped openly) enter the environment via inland waterways, wastewater outflows, and transport by wind or tides. : Argentina (2012); Australia (SA, ACT, TAS); Bangladesh (2002); . problem. Creating public awareness regarding the healthy environment, managing wastes, alternative disposal methods, establishing the incineration mechanisms, and drop-off-areas facilities for plastic recycling also recommended to ensure a healthy environment. /Parent 2 0 R Kibria, G. 2018. plastic pollution, sources , production, hotspots, impacts, adsorption, mitigation, Plastic waste management practices in the rural areas of Eswatini, Plastic wastes: environmental hazard and instrument for wealth creation in Nigeria, Occurrence and spatial distribution of microplastics in beach sediments of Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh, Achieving Sustainability: Four Simple Tips, The Prohibition of Plastics Utilization Associated with the Principle of Sustainable Development, A Review of Studies on Environmental Performance Analysis of Construction and Demolition Waste Management using Life Cycle Assessment, School of Engineering The Federal Polytechnic Ilaro 4 th National Conference Plastic Wastes: An Environmental Hazard and A Solution to Wealth Creation in Nigeria, Impact of single use polyethylene shopping bags on environmental pollution, a comprehensive review, Current Scenario of Plastic Waste Management in India: Way Forward in Turning Vision to Reality, Plastic Pollution in the World’s Oceans: More than 5 Trillion Plastic Pieces Weighing over 250,000 Tons Afloat at Sea, Environmentally relevant concentrations of microplastic particles influence larval fish ecology, Fisheries, Aquatic science, Biodiversity & Climate change, Low-carbon economic & sustainable development Pathways, Research on Community Based Environmental and Sustainability Education Model. endobj /Rotate 0 Science. The main land- based sources of marine plastic waste include storm water discharge, combined sewer overflows, tourism related litter, illegal dumping, industrial activities e.g. how to reduce waste generated from plastics, food, water usages). /StructParents 24 >> << /MediaBox [0 0 595.3800048828 841.9799804688] To conclude, the authors provide the best possible options and divergent solutions for tackling plastic wastes from Indian perspective towards turning vision to reality. 494: 169-171; 10. This statistic displays the sources of plastic waste in the United Kingdom (UK) from 2018 to 2013, by sector. • Native fish Using an oceanographic model of floating debris dispersal calibrated by our data, and correcting for wind-driven vertical mixing, we estimate a minimum of 5.25 trillion particles weighing 268,940 tons. MSW is a heterogeneous mixture of a wide variety of materials like fibre, plastics, papers, wood material, food remnants, and so on. Reclamation systems differ from country to country and may even be different regionally. /Type /Page The primary aim of this review article is to identify the commonality among those research papers and understand the environmental impacts of various practices being adopted in C&D waste management. The analyses of seal blubber have demonstrated that, by comparison with the Arctic, Antarctic and Pacific Oceans, the levels of contamination in the Baltic, North Sea and Irish Sea (west of Great Britain) are very much higher, as judged by the presence of both pesticides and PCB residues. When comparing between four size classes, two microplastic ,4.75 mm and meso- and macroplastic .4.75 mm, a tremendous loss of microplastics is observed from the sea surface compared to expected rates of fragmentation, suggesting there are mechanisms at play that remove ,4.75 mm plastic particles from the ocean surface. LCA case studies were found to vary widely on several categories, and we inferred that they could be compared by selecting normalized unit processes in the system boundaries, functional unit, inventory data sources and impact categories. plastic waste through source reduction—the process of minimizing the amount of plastic used. However, with the declination of oil prices and increase in plastic wastes, the world is tending towards energy and sustainable development. 11 0 obj • Low-Carbon Homes The various sources of plastic waste are shown in figure 1. /Length 32 0 R It discusses about the legislations governing Plastic Waste Management and Handling Rules (2011, 2016 and 2018) in India, amendments, current status of implementation as well as opportunities and challenges in PWM. /Filter /FlateDecode Plastic-made products and bags are widely used worldwide due to the advantages of convenience, availability, and cheapness. /Resources 16 0 R Highlights Plastic wasteis a looming global concern as it could take up to 1 000 years to decompose plastic materials in the ecosystem. see the weblink: https://sites.google.com/site/pollutionwqbangladesh/, gas (GHG) emissions, reduce vulnerabilities of climate change impacts on social, economic, environmental sectors/assets and integrate/incorporate climate change as a risk in development programmes. 73(2):230-239. doi: 10.1007/s00244-017. 118 (1-2).17-26. /StructParents 22 • Low-Carbon Development endobj It provides the latest business information on production and demand, trade, recovery as well as employment and turnover in the plastics industry. We estimate that over 1000 rivers are accountable for 80% of global annual emissions which range between 0.8 – 2.7 million metric tons per year, with small urban rivers amongst the most polluting. Demolition of buildings is on the rise owing to rapid urbanization and dynamic demands. In short, this report gives an insight There is no evidence that seals in good condition are affected by these residues, but when fat is mobilized the higher residue concentrations which are produced in the remaining lipids could have a detrimental physiological effect. Domestic Waste: Domestic waste is generated due to various household activities. plastic bags are generally used when curb service is provided and the homeowner is responsible for placing the bags along the curb. It includes … It is intending to present and disseminate complex data and technical information in a most simplified manner (short, simple, and quick), some of the simple articles/fact-sheets in the pipeline and will be available via this project update (listed alphabetically, not in preference): stream /MediaBox [0 0 595.3800048828 841.9799804688] Disposal of all plastic waste ever generated (as of 2015) 7 Matsuguma et al 2017. It also offer help for policymakers to consider regulatingthe manufacture and use of plastic bags. outflows, and transport by wind or tides [5]. Once in the water, plastic debris never fully biodegrades. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.02.048. • Metal pollution micro plastics found larvae ate the micro plastics. These non-recycled plastics (NRP), found in the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream, could provide an abundant source of alternative energy /Tabs /S endobj They can come from a variety of land and ocean-based sources; enter the water in many ways; and impact the ocean and Great Lakes. Simon, N and Schulte, M.L. /Rotate 0 1 0 obj /Group 15 0 R Evaluation of the data demonstrated significant geographical differences in both level and, Join ResearchGate to discover and stay up-to-date with the latest research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. The plastic Ocean. Plastic pollution in freshwater and marine environments have been identified as a global The theme of this paper is to comprehend the current scenario of Plastic Waste Management (PWM) in India, particularly in the context of achieving sustainable development goals 2030. /Contents 11 0 R Global initiatives on the ban of plastics, collection and recycling mechanisms of plastic waste are addressed and compared with the Indian scenario. >> • Water of Europe’s p lastic waste was recycled, another third ended up in landfills, and from the rest only the energy was recovered. 2. Emerging three-dimensional printing technology that uses plastic materials may save human lives by enabling medical innovation. 263-265; 2.Xanthos, D and Walker, T.R. It (LCD) aims to reduce GHG emissions consistent with the 2°C rise limit (as agreed in Paris Conference in Dec 2015) and achieve new global sustainable development goals (2016-2030) while accommodating the expected economic and population growth. Waste can be categorized by municipal waste, and industrial waste 3. • Climate change & water related diseases >> Plastic pollution is capable of affecting land, waterways and oceans as a large percentage of marine and land creatures have died due to the fact that plastic is non-biodegradable and it causes hazards to soil. DDT compounds and HCH isomers were relatively uniform throughout this process. Nature. Sources of plastics . 2016. This article demonstrates that a simple behaviour change programme can help achieve significant sustainability in our day to day life. It is anticipated that global plastic waste totals to 4.9 billion tonnes and will reach 12 billion tonnes by 2050. Golam Kibria reported that China ranks first among the top 20 countries in the world which mismanage plastic wastes and India ranks 12th among them, Bergmann et al. entanglement of animals or swallowing pieces of plastics and causing infection, starvation and even mortality), ... Large plastic items, such as discarded fishing lines and nets, can cause attachment to invertebrates, birds, mammals, and turtles, salted grasses, and corals. The environmental impact generated due to the operation of C&D waste recycling facility was reported to be negligible in most of the papers. /Subtype /Link This suggests that snow and ice serve as media of supply of these pollutants into Antarctic marine environment. 409, 3309–3324; 9. Hence, waste reduction of this type is given the highest priority in solid waste management plans, because it reduces the demand placed on the management system. Presentation: Plastic Pollution- Sources, Global Production, Global “Hotspots”, Impacts on Biodivers... PCB and chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides in Antarctic atmosphere and hydrosphere. 6 0 obj from ocean-based sources (fishing nets, fishing ropes). Sussarellu, R. 2016. The trend of dumping plastic garbage into the marine ecosystem, jeopardize the survival of enormous species because of infections with plastic scraps. We have also produced an FAQs on Plastics page which attempts to answer additional common questions on the topic. • Food waste Figure 3 – Composition of daily plastic waste discarded . Summary 1.1. Marine animals are affected by the ingestion and entanglement of plastic litter. Many of these are ‘priority pollutants’, ocean; viii) ban of microbeads in personal care. • Wetlands. /StructParents 21 Rivers are a major source of plastic waste into the oceans. Waste Act of 1990, which set a goal of diverting 25% of New Mexico’s municipal solid waste from landfills by 1995 and 50% by July 1, 2000. 2016. • Endocrine disputing chemicals In developed countries, poor awareness of societies on plastic materials, poor collection of waste materials and their treatments, high run-off and floods due to rain are important pointed sources of plastic materials, namely plastic bags and water bottles, from/to the environment (agricultural farmlands, surface waters) which undermines soil and water qualities and threatens human and … The very simple onlin. /Group 24 0 R The targeted development sectors are i) agriculture, Livestock, fisheries, aquaculture; ii) Buildings; iii) Forestry; iv) Industry; v) Power; vi) Transport; vii) Tourism; viii) Water; ix) Waste, e articles, mostly 2-3 pages will be in the form of questions and answers to assist global communities to have handy and quick information on various environmental and sustainability aspects (see below). Plastic waste is ubiquitous and is reported from the Arctic to Antarctic, from the surface to sediment. 544: 297; 5. >> This is our main data entry on plastics, with a particular focus on its pollution of the environment. It blocks drainage lines and fill up land space causing floods and erosion thereby causing deterioration of the Nigeria roads. China, Indonesia, Philippines, Vietnam and Sri Lanka, which between them contribute 56% of global plastic waste. /F 4 /Kids [3 0 R 4 0 R 5 0 R 6 0 R 7 0 R] Distribution of single-use plastic production by region (2014) 4 Figure 1.4. The paper presents a generic overview of plastic waste inventorization, composition and its effects on health and environment. Disposal of C&D waste leads to faster depletion of available landfill space. They save fuel and reduce carbon dioxide emissions by providing light materials for cars and airplanes. << 10 0 obj Jambeck, et al. 5 0 obj Again in 2014, altho ugh more than 65% of all packaging waste was recycled in the EU, less than 40% of plastic packaging waste was recycled. Sci. Because of the non-biodegradable nature, plastic causes many negative and hazardous impacts on the ecosystem and environment. << concentrated source of waste, in quantity, while plastic bottles were the most highly concentrated source, in mass. 2017.Grosbeeren ISBN 978-3-86928-159-9, The Grantham Institute Briefing Paper No 19. /Tabs /S • Pharmaceuticals Furthermore, individuals exposed to microplastics do not respond to olfactory threat cues, which greatly increases predator-induced mortality rates. • Climate-Smart Aquaculture Sources of plastic debris 2.1. Evidence based examples are illustrated in the article with viable solution recommended for implementation. 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