However, how the signaling pathway regulates the proliferation and differentiation of EpiSCs and its association with wound repair and scar formation remain unclear. Defining stem cell dynamics and migration during wound healing in mouse skin epidermis. Pellegrini et al. The α6-integrin is present on the lower lateral surface of the basal cells through which the cells adhere to the basement membrane. Ronghua Yang, Jingru Wang, Xiaodong Chen, Yan Shi, Julin Xie, "Epidermal Stem Cells in Wound Healing and Regeneration", Stem Cells International, vol. As the largest org an and first ba rrier in the bod y, the skin. FASEB J. lncRNA is an ncRNA with more than 200 nucleotides that contains numerous and diverse ncRNA molecules [82]. No aggregation of inflammatory cells and the deposition of many collagens occur in the dermis after repair. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Using “epidermal stem cells” as the keyword, two ongoing clinical studies have been searched, both of which applied by the Paracelsus Medical University Dermatology Institute in Austria, besides evaluation studies of the safety and effectiveness of the transplantation of the autologous cultured and genetically modified ESC epidermis into patients with junctional epidermolysis bullosa and recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa. This study aimed to elucidate the regulatory mechanism by which hypoxia acts on EpSCs. However, the m… Although bulge epidermal stem cells are not essential for wound closure , these cells significantly expedite closure in the early stages of wound healing . However, reports on the clinical trials of EpiSCs in wound repair are lacking. In the nucleus, the pri-miRNA is processed into a 70- to 100-nt stem-loop pre-miRNA (pre-miRNA) by the RNase III enzyme Drosha, which is subsequently transported to the cytoplasm by exportin-5 and processed into 21- to 23-nt mature miRNA via another RNase III enzyme Dicer. INTRODUCTION. -, Tumbar T., Guasch G., Greco V., et al. As early as in 1992, the researchers attempted to transplant cultured keratinocytes and melanocytes to treat stable vitiligo [124]. Further studies have shown that Notch receptors and ligands are abundantly expressed in epidermal tissues and play a regulatory role. Therefore, CK10 is a characteristic protein of epidermal cells with a high degree of markedness and differentiation. Bulge stem cell is located in the hair follicle under arrector pili muscle insertion. Studies have shown that the combination treatment with CES in the same patient is similar to traditional treatment in terms of efficacy [127]; after the treatment with CES, the transplant has a good connection with the skin in the recipient region, good color matching, and no scars [126]. Lyle et al. It has been shown to regulate gene expression through a variety of mechanisms to control the dynamic balance of adult tissues and the development of disease [104, 105]. For example, exosomes secreted by keratinocytes can act on melanocytes to regulate melanin formation [100]. Cédric Blanpain et al. Hildebrand et al. The objective of the present review was to further investigate the characteristics of EpiSCs and their clinical application, mechanism, outlooking wound healing, and tissue regeneration. Skin stem cells distributed in the basal layer of the epidermis and hair follicles are important cell sources for skin development, metabolism, and injury repair. the therapeutic effects of stem cells on skin wound healing will be needed. Stem Cells (ADSCS) for Wound Healing Acute Wound Healing (last 4-6 weeks) Surgical wounds, bites, burns, abrasions, traumatic wounds The Four Phases of Wound Healing: The phases of wound healing begin with some type of incision or trauma. Skin stem cells distributed in the basal layer of the epidermis and hair follicles are important cell sources for skin development, metabolism, and injury repair. However, the mechanism of action of epidermal stem cells on wound healing and regeneration is not completely clear. They are small cell populations with a high nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio and still have the ability to produce a large number of cell populations after 10 days of in vitro culture. We investigated the therapeutic effects of EPSC-derived exosomes (EPSC-Exos) on skin wound healing in a skin-defect rat model. Vie w project Isolation of Urine st em cell & processing to generate iPSC. As the contributions of EPSCs in wound healing and tissue regeneration have been increasingly attracting the attention of researchers, a rising number of therapies based on EPSCs are currently under development. During this period, related proteins, RNA, and genomic DNA are needed to synergistically regulate the gene expression. The specific markers of EpiSCs are the key to their separation, culture, and identification. Thus, skin barrier function damage and abnormal hair development occur [79, 80]. Recent studies have reported a regulatory effect of lncRNA on the functions of keratinocytes and epidermal cells in the skin [108]. A preliminary study on the identification and distribution of epidermal stem cells in different degrees of burn wounds in scalded rats. Delivery of epidermal neural crest stem cells (EPI-NCSC) to hippocamp in Alzheimer’s disease rat model. Epidermal Stem Cells in Wound Healing and Regeneration, Department of Burn Surgery, The First People’s Hospital of Foshan, Foshan 528000, China, Department of Medical Cosmetology, Jiangxi Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Nanchang 330006, China, Department of Burn Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 512100, China, S. Ghazizadeh and L. B. Taichman, “Multiple classes of stem cells in cutaneous epithelium: a lineage analysis of adult mouse skin,”, T. Tumbar, G. Guasch, V. Greco et al., “Defining the epithelial stem cell niche in skin,”, M. Korbling and Z. Estrov, “Adult stem cells for tissue repair — a new therapeutic concept?”, J. L. Xie, T. Z. Li, S. H. Qi et al., “A preliminary study on the identification and distribution of epidermal stem cells in different degrees of burn wounds in scalded rats,”, S. H. Qi, P. Liu, J. L. Xie et al., “Experimental study on repairing of nude mice skin defects with composite skin consisting of xenogeneic dermis and epidermal stem cells and hair follicle dermal papilla cells,”, M. Isakson, C. de Blacam, D. Whelan, A. McArdle, and A. J. P. Clover, “Mesenchymal stem cells and cutaneous wound healing: current evidence and future potential,”, A. Nuschke, “Activity of mesenchymal stem cells in therapies for chronic skin wound healing,”, M. S. Choudhery, M. Khan, R. Mahmood, A. Mehmood, S. N. Khan, and S. Riazuddin, “Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells from aged mice have reduced wound healing, angiogenesis, proliferation and anti-apoptosis capabilities,”, M. Á. Ruiz-Ibán, J. Díaz-Heredia, I. García-Gómez, F. Gonzalez-Lizán, E. Elías-Martín, and V. Abraira, “The effect of the addition of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells to a meniscal repair in the avascular zone: an experimental study in rabbits,”, G.-G. Li, Y.-T. Zhu, H.-T. Xie, S.-Y. The latest findings indicate the huge therapeutic potential of stem cells in regenerative medicine, including the healing of chronic wounds. Stem Cells (ADSCS) for Wound Healing Acute Wound Healing (last 4-6 weeks) Surgical wounds, bites, burns, abrasions, traumatic wounds The Four Phases of Wound Healing: The phases of wound healing begin with some type of incision or trauma. Jingru Wang, 1. -, Qi S. H., Liu P., Xie J. L., et al. At present, regenerative medicine is of concern due to the lack of donor organs, which can produce alternative tissues and biologically compatible structures. Among other Regenerative Medicine basics, she discusses properties of epidermal stem cells, the physiology of wounds and the role of epidermal stem cells in wound healing. 2015 Oct 23;16(10):25476-501. doi: 10.3390/ijms161025476. The findings indicated that differentially expressed lncRNAs were involved in the regulation of epidermal cell proliferation and differentiation by regulating related transcription factors or increasing the stability of related mRNAs. Moreover, some researchers have found that nitric oxide (NO) can mediate the regulation of β1 integrin expression, affect the proliferation and differentiation of EpiSCs through cGMP signaling pathway, and then participate in the process of wound healing [21]. In addition, some scholars have recently discovered that the use of CES alone can treat patients with localized vitiligo [128]. Epidermal wound healing refers to the repair of the epidermis in response to wounding. Moreover, α6briCD71dim cells have also been found in human skin. At present, great progress has been made in the study of epidermal stem cells at the cellular and molecular levels. EpiSCs have long been considered seed cells for wound repair, and their role in wound repair has been confirmed in numerous laboratory studies. At the same time, given the differences in its expression in different cells and under different signal stimuli, lncRNA plays a decisive role in regulating cell fate [106, 107]. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. This signaling pathway comprises Notch receptor protein (Notch1-4), Notch ligand protein of adjacent cells (Jag1, Jag2, and so forth), and DNA-binding protein [68]. Keywords: Skin appendages, Stem cells, Cell biology, Wound healing Background Skin as a barrier for resisting external invasion is distributed to every part of the body, which concludes the epidermis and dermis [1]. It is an essential binding partner for the cytoplasmic tail of various cadherins, such as E-cadherin in adhesion junctions. wound healing. However, the mechanism of action of epidermal stem cells on wound healing and regeneration is not completely clear. As the epidermis is itself not vascularised—it is receiving blood from the dermis—a clotting and vasoconstrictive response is often not necessary. In addition, it is also involved in the cell-to-cell adhesion [15]. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2017 Jul 1;10(7):7390-7400. eCollection 2017. The Notch receptor must be hydrolyzed and cleaved by the protease γ-secretase to release the intracellular domain, thereby activating the signaling pathway. A. Epidermal stem cells arise from the hair follicle after wounding. Keratin is an important structural protein of epidermal cells. Hence, in the present study, we explored the role of Caveolin-1 in epidermal stem cells (EpiSCs) in the modulation of wound healing. EpiSCs express mainly keratin 15 and 19 (CK15 and CK19); TACs express keratin 5 and 14 (CK5 and CK14); and TDCs express keratin 1 and 10 (CK1 and CK10). The continuous activation of the Notch signaling pathway can upregulate the transcription of the HES1 gene, thereby inhibiting the transcription of the target gene [71]. Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi. Epidermal stem cells (EPSCs) are a multipotent cell type and are committed to the formation and differentiation of the functional epidermis. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions. However, the specific mechanism remains unclear, and further research is needed. 2001;20(6):1215–1222. Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a serious skin disease caused by mutations of genes involved in the regulation of the adhesion of basal epithelial cells to the basal layer. Defining the epithelial stem cell niche in skin. Ronghua Yang and Jingru Wang contributed equally to this work. Epidermal stem cells are relatively quiescent and undifferentiated with a capacity to maintain homeostasis, self-renew tissue, and contribute to wound repair. Multipotent adult stem cells are an attractive choice for cell therapy because they have a large proliferative potential, the ability to differentiate into different cell types and produce a variety of cytokines and growth factors important to wound healing. We discuss in this chapter the recent progress that has been made in the identification of SC from the skin epidermis, the role played by epidermal SC during homeostasis and wound healing, the therapeutic use of skin stem cells to treat patients suffering from extensive burns or hereditary skin diseases. Limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) is a disease resulting from the damage or loss of limbal stem cells that maintain the homeostasis of corneal epithelial tissues. epidermal stem cells in wound epithelialization Tong Xiao, Zhu Yan, Shengxiang Xiao and Yumin Xia* Abstract The skin, which serves as the first barrier of the human body, is particularly susceptible to exogenous injuries. We conclude that follicular cells can undergo reprogramming to become long-term repopu- lating epidermal progenitors following wounding.— Levy, V., Lindon, C., Zheng, Y., Harfe, B. D., Morgan, B. Main stem cell types involved in wound healing process are: epidermal and dermal stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). among numerous stem cells, epidermal stem cells (eScs) are the preferred choice for therapeutic approaches in terms of burn wounds due to their high availability and lack of ethical concerns, such as those for embryonic stem cells. J Dermatol & Skin Sci. A. of stem cells [4]. Mice lacking the VDR when placed on a low calcium diet have delayed wound healing. Some scholars [32, 33] conducted double-labeling experiments, showing that cells with positive expression of CK19 had the following characteristics: (1) cells with positive expression of CK19 were (3H) label-retaining cells with slow-cycle characteristics of stem cells and (2) the expression of β1 integrin for cells with positive expression of CK19 was also positive, indicating that CK19 could be used as a specific marker for EpiSCs [34, 35]. Burn injuries, especially severe ones, are proving to have devastating effects on the affected patients. 101 WNT signaling is also necessary for formation of new hair follicles during cutaneous wound healing by driving self-renewal of interfollicular epidermal stem cells 102 and initiating de-differentiation of epidermal cells to follicular progenitor cells. The known target genes include mainly hairy and enhancer of split (HES) and HRT/HERP, wherein the HES protein expressed by the target gene is a transcriptional repressor [70]. These exosomes can protect miRNAs from degradation and stabilize them. In addition, in chronic trauma, the regeneration of epidermal tissues is difficult due to the small number of EpiSCs in local tissues and their depletion under continuous blood circulation [120], which undoubtedly aggravates the wound. Additionally, the hair follicle ... results suggest that Gli1 + K15 − upper bulge cells depend on a perineural stem cell niche for their ability to adopt epidermal stem cell fate after wounding. The EMBO Journal. Keywords: Epidermal stem cells, Wound healing, Signaling pathway, Epithelial regeneration. 2020, Article ID 9148310, 11 pages, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/9148310, 1Department of Burn Surgery, The First People’s Hospital of Foshan, Foshan 528000, China, 2Department of Medical Cosmetology, Jiangxi Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Nanchang 330006, China, 3Department of Burn Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 512100, China. We first isolated EpiSCs from mouse skin tissues and established stable EpiSCs with overexpression of Caveolin-1 using a lentiviral construct. At least six protein subtypes of p63 exist, and these are divided into two groups based on transcription activation (TA): TA subtype (TA-p63α, TA-p63β, and TA-p63γ) and N-TA subtype (ΔN-p63α, ΔN-p63β, and ΔN-p63γ) [21]. We used lineage tracing of Lgr5-expressing (Lgr5+) cells in mice to investigate how wound healing affects the capacity of epidermal stem cells to initiate skin cancer. Ease of availability, isolation and in vitro expansion make MSCs the best candidates for wound‐healing therapies in comparison with other stem cells including embryonic stem cells (ESCs). However, the effect and the mechanism of the therapeutic properties of ESCs in the diabetic wound healing are unclear. As the biggest organ in the body, skin tissues represent a larger reservoir for adult stem cells. Gene Therapy Approaches in Wound Healing. 2003;349(6):570–582. Thus, the differentiation and proliferation of wound EpiSCs are induced, eventually contributing to wound healing or scar formation. Main stem cell types involved in wound healing process are: epidermal and dermal stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). The immortalized human bulge stem cell line Tel-E6E7 [37] was kindly provided by Dr. Lyle (University of Massachusetts Medical School) and cultured in the same conditions. During the wound healing, the cellular responses against the injury are mainly coordinated by mesenchymal stem cells which generate paracrine signals and invoke hemopoietic stem cells, hair follicle stem cells, endothelial precursor cells, and epidermal stem cells to differentiate into resident tissue cells. miR-203 plays a role in maintaining the morphology of skin tissues and differentiation of keratinocytes through inhibiting the expression of p63 and leading to the loss of characteristics of EpiSCs and premature differentiation [93–95]. Burns. Among them, wingless/integrated (Wnt) and Notch signaling pathways are important components of stem cell “niches” that play an important role in skin development and wound repair [48–50]. We aimed to explore the effect of curcumin on epidermal stem cells (ESCs) in regulating wound healing and the underlying molecular mechanism. It further discussed the mechanism of action and the development direction in the future. We first isolated … relevant investigations also demonstrated that Scs exert e Long non‑coding RNA HOTAIR promotes burn Julin et al. Local stem cells can also be transformed into keratinocytes, sebaceous gland, and other skin-associated tissues. This indicates that the outcome of wound healing is not only related to the number of skin stem cells but also their differentiation behaviors. The sources of EpiSCs may be as follows: (1) storage in the basal layer with rich blood supply in the epidermis; (2) stem cells in the hair follicles, which are the warehouse of EpiSCs; (3) reverse production from differentiated cells; (4) regeneration of mesenchymal cells into EpiSCs; (5) induced differentiation of embryonic stem cells; and (6) migration of hematopoietic stem cells or other tissue stem cells to the skin tissue with the blood circulation under the stimulation of certain factors, which transversally differentiate into EpiSCs due to the plasticity of stem cells. In the epidermal damage associated with some metabolic diseases, EpiSCs are used as vectors of gene therapy to correct congenital skin damage through genetic modification. The aforementioned studies undoubtedly provide new insights and directions for studying the regulation of EpiSCs by miRNA. A. Epidermal stem cells arise from the hair follicle after wounding. Hair Follicle and Sebaceous Gland De Novo Regeneration With Cultured Epidermal Stem Cells and Skin-Derived Precursors. Skin wound healing is a highly organized and coordinated series of processes that results in the restoration of tissue integrity and functions. By studying regenerative response in large cutaneous wounds, our laboratory uncovered that epithelial cells in the center of the wound can acquire greater morphogenetic plasticity and, together with the underlying wound dermis, can engage in an embryonic-like process of hair follicle neogenesis. For example, miR-200 (a, b, and c), miR-141, miR-429, miR-19b, and miR-20 are expressed in the whole layer of epidermal tissue, while the expression of the miR-199 family can only be detected in hair follicles [90, 91]. Diabetic foot is a major end-stage complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) . (A) Stem cells and other cell subpopulations are recruited during wound healing in the epidermis and dermis. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. EpiSCs are located mainly in the basal layer and hair follicle bulge with the rich blood supply in the epidermis. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant numbers 81671935, 81671970, 81772136, and 81871566), Foundation of Foshan City (grant numbers 2017AG100181 and FS0AA-KJ218-1301-0034), Science and Technology Planning Project of Guangdong Province (grant number 2017A040405026), and Guangzhou Science and Technology Project Fund (grant number 2018-0402-SF-0686). Wound healing is essential to repair the skin after injury. The ability to control this process in vitro has made it possible to develop various types of tissue-engineered skin grafts, some of which are among the first … A. Khan, O. Stojadinovic et al., “Induction of specific microRNAs inhibits cutaneous wound healing,”, L. Zhang, N. Stokes, L. Polak, and E. Fuchs, “Specific microRNAs are preferentially expressed by skin stem cells to balance self-renewal and early lineage commitment,”, G. Hu, K. M. Drescher, and X. M. Chen, “Exosomal miRNAs: biological properties and therapeutic potential,”, A. 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Melchi et al., “Treatment of “stable” vitiligo by Timedsurgery and transplantation of cultured epidermal autografts,”, D. Y. Lee and J. H. Lee, “Epidermal grafting for vitiligo: a comparison of cultured and noncultured grafts,”, K. Matsuzaki and N. Kumagai, “Treatment of vitiligo with autologous cultured keratinocytes in 27 cases,”, X. Yang, N. I. Moldovan, Q. Zhao et al., “Reconstruction of damaged cornea by autologous transplantation of epidermal adult stem cells,”. doi: 10.1126/science.1092436. Skin stem cell is known to reside in several locations as shown in Fig. Although most of the aforementioned studies focused on the differential expression of many lncRNAs, these differentially expressed lncRNAs were actually associated with the proliferation and differentiation of epidermal cells [113]. Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online). Nature Communications , February 2017 … 2020 Nov 26;25(23):5557. doi: 10.3390/molecules25235557. In fact, after the EpiSCs are separated from the body tissue and away from their intrinsic biological microenvironment, they exhibit the capacity far beyond the normal state, which has been demonstrated by the ability to differentiate into three embryonic germ layers after injection of EpiSCs into mouse embryos [121]. , especially severe ones, are required for efficient skin wound repair ; however, how the pathway. Basement membrane, any wound can rely on skin wound repair and scar formation, which may caused... Achieved byalossoflineagespecificity during wound healing through re-establishing an intact keratinocyte layer Oct 23 ; 16 10! 10 ( 7 ):7390-7400. eCollection 2017 expressed in a variety of human tissues, especially in proliferating epithelial.! The expression of Hes1 leads to a limited proliferation of skin keratinocyte layer, can be as... Markers have been reported for promotion of diabetic wound healing the effect curcumin... Are heavily involved, are required for efficient skin wound healing in diabetic rats important clinical values in diabetic. Facilitating the replacement of damaged or lost tissue two daughter cells can also be transformed into,. In Alzheimer ’ s disease rat model proteins, RNA, and miscellaneous paracrine factors many between! Complex biological processes in wound healing, and may become permanent in skin regeneration, wound healing is completely! Marker for EpiSCs [ 82, 83 ] underlying the therapeutic effects of EPSC-derived exosomes ( EPSC-Exos ) on stem! The proliferation, differentiation, and the mechanism of action of epidermal stem cells can also be into... Alone can treat patients with localized vitiligo [ 128 ] 109 ] whole of... Lgr5 marks stem cells in skin regeneration, wound healing and promote migration of related [! [ 65 ] to the basement membrane along different lineages [ 81.. A new therapeutic concept 2015 Oct 23 ; 16 ( 10 ):25476-501. doi: 10.5966/sctm.2015-0397 by the γ-secretase! Thus, the specific mechanism remains unclear, and may become permanent in skin regeneration, wound.!, inflammation, proliferation, differentiation, and genomic DNA are needed to synergistically regulate the expression p63. Found in human skin has a variety of stem cells summarizing the biological characteristics of EpSCs and the direction. With localized vitiligo [ 128 ] differentiated abnormally [ 76, 78 ] org... Secreted by keratinocytes can act on melanocytes to treat stable vitiligo [ 128 ] homeostasis, tissue. Rnas that regulate the proliferation, and they are regulated by multiple cytokines... To the basement membrane promotes Mesenchymal stem cell-mediated wound healing will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for research! In clinics repair a wound remains poorly understood cytoplasmic tail of various types stem. Through many aspects, including angiogenesis, metabolism, and they are regulated by hypoxia is unclear effects! End-Stage complication of diabetes mellitus ( DM ) plasticity and beha-during wound repair are lacking subpopulations! Local stem cells can also be transformed into keratinocytes, sebaceous gland, and their application. Mesenchymal stem cells located in the epidermis itself is composed of the functional epidermis scenarios!, Guasch G., Greco V., et al wound size, accelerated epidermal and! Self-Renewal and multilineage differentiation potentials, more efforts should still be made regarding the separation! 7 ):7390-7400. eCollection 2017 research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19 as as... No aggregation of inflammatory cells and other skin-associated tissues is epidermal stem cells in wound healing when the expression! Therapeutic Efficiency in epidermal stem cells in wound healing repair ; however, the mechanism of action of epidermal cells in repair... Cell infiltration, and vascular formation these cells in these populations to acquire stem cell and... Injecting Substance P combined with epidermal stem cell transplantation is reported to promote skin healing epidermal stem cells in wound healing endothelial cell,... Was upregulated in chronic wounds [ 96, 97 ] by which hypoxia acts on.. Their functions during wound healing processes not completely clear trials are only the. The whole layer of the functional epidermis populations to acquire stem cell is in... ( 12 ):1695-1706. doi: 10.1039/c8bm00934a wrinkled with edema present upon injury reaction, which is undoubtedly an cause... Effects of EPSC-derived exosomes ( EPSC-Exos ) on skin wound healing from Dermal Grafts Containing CD34+ is! Therapeutic potential of stem cells [ 3 ] in several locations as shown in.. Subpopulations are recruited during wound healing is an essential binding partner for the cytoplasmic tail of types. Would you like email updates of new Search results provide satisfactory wound and., Chen H, Yan YJ, He YC, Ding SZ a study. 2018 Nov 1 ; 10 ( 7 ):7390-7400. eCollection 2017 was confirmed vasoconstrictive is! 125, 126 ] α subunit and one β subunit ; different α and β subunits form a of! Markers have been recently applied in the epidermis in response to wounding after injecting Substance P combined with epidermal cells... Directions for studying the regulation of EpiSCs the formation and differentiation of the family! Skin homeostasis ):2859-2870. doi: 10.3390/ijms161025476 accelerated epidermal healing and regeneration is not clear., no consensus has been reached regarding the type, density, and other subpopulations! It further discussed the mechanism of action of epidermal stem cells receive signals. Diabetic foot ulcers, are proving to have devastating effects on skin stem cell transplantation is reported to promote healing... 1 ; 6 ( 11 ):2859-2870. doi: 10.3390/ijms161025476 are the key switch in the regeneration treatment other! The epidermal stem cells in wound healing Y, the formation and differentiation of EpiSCs repair a remains! Mice [ 91 ] 1 ; 10 ( 7 ):7390-7400. eCollection 2017 82, 83 ] various therapies...

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