Most sonographers adjust these to left-of-center for the near field (top), and slowly move to right-of-center as image quality decreases deeper in the image. Have your computer near your ultrasound with the guide open to the page that outlines the different controls. PRF – Pulse Repetition Frequency (scale); in pulse echo instruments, it is the number of pulses launched per second by the transducer; PW Doppler – Pulsed Wave Doppler; sound is transmitted and received intermittently with one transducer. Keeping the above in mind, let’s answer our first question.Where should you begin? B, Pulse repetition frequency of 0.6 kHz. Pulsed wave Doppler analyzes reflections from a specific location (i.e the sample volume) along the Doppler line. For most X series Siemens systems, press the quickset button on the keyboard, type a name into the quickset name text box,  click on save. PW allows us to measure blood velocities at a single point, or within a small window of space As the name implies, turning the near field gain dial will adjust the image gain in the top half of the image. PW allows us to measure blood velocities at a single point, or within a small window of space, Color Flow – Ability to display blood flow in multiple colors depending on the velocity, direction of flow and extent of turbulence, CW Doppler – Continuous wave Doppler; one transducer continuously transmits sound and one continuously receives sound; used in high velocity flow patterns, Wall Filter – a high-pass filter usually employed to remove the wall component from the blood flow signal, Doppler Angle – The angle that the reflector path makes with the ultrasound beam; the most accurate velocity is recorded when the beam is parallel to flow, Sample Gate – The sample site from which the signal is obtained with pulsed Doppler. Press the patient button, enter a name, and ID if needed. Aliasing can be remedied by reducing the frequency of the ultrasound or increasing the PRF. TGC (Time Gain Compensation) – selectively adjusting the gain at different depths. Ultrasound Expertise and Solutions Delivered. Did you recently purchase an ultrasound machine, unpack and set it up, then wondered “Where do I begin?”  Physicians and clinicians, most never formally trained for ultrasound, are quickly finding out that using an ultrasound machine isn’t as easy as it was made look. Some portable systems like those from SonoSite and use a simple near or far field adjustment. Thus, in cw Doppler the sampling frequency equals the pulse repetition frequency. Find that page and leave it open. Adjusting the frequency allows you to improve the image resolution at the level of the object being evaluated. By using multiple sample volumes, the pulse repetition frequency is increased (the pulses from different sample volumes are added) and thus the aliasing speed is increased. Successive frames are averaged as they are displayed to reduce the variations in the image between frames, hence lowering the temporal resolution of the image, Frame Rate – Rate at which images are updated on the display; dependent on frequency of the transducer and depth selection, PRF – Pulse Repetition Frequency (scale); in pulse echo instruments, it is the number of pulses launched per second by the transducer, PW Doppler – Pulsed Wave Doppler; sound is transmitted and received intermittently with one transducer. The highest number is for near field scanning and the lowest number is use to penetrate for far field imaging. Variations in insonating acoustic pressure (0.05 to 3.5 MPa), pulse frequency (0.5 to 5.0 MHz), pulse repetition frequency (10 to 3000 Hz), pulse duration … - The number of pulses that occur in 1 sec. Firstly, You are correct that the Nyquist limit is half the pulse repetition frequency (PRF). Adjusting the image persistence causes individual frames of the scan to linger, thus blending them with the images in the successive frames. Increasing the depth reduces the image resolution. A good starting place is the middle range, Position the focal zone to be located near the middle to far field of the image, Play with the gray scale map (usually displayed as a A, B, C value) until you find one that appeals to you, one that allows you to see the vessel wall clearly and an anechoic (black) vessel lumen, Now, if you want the vessel wall and lumen to have more contrast, lower the dynamic range until your preference has been met, You should now only have to adjust the gain with either the overall gain dial or the TGC sliders, You may have to cycle through several soft menus to find this, This may also be displayed are reject or filter, By lowering your filter you are telling the system to listen to slower flow vs. the defaulted faster flow setting, Look at the monitor and find the scale or PRF, For venous insufficiency, lower the scale to capture the slow laminar flow found in the superficial vein but not so low that the color flow bleeds outside of the vessel wall, Test your setting by squeezing your hand to initiate an augmentation. Most systems will not let you override the factory default settings but Esaote and Toshiba will. Can’t find one online? Real Time – (B Mode/2D) Ultrasound instrumentation that allows the image to be displayed many times per second to achieve a “real-time” image of anatomic structures and their motion patterns, Gain – Measure of the strength of the ultrasound signal; overall gain amplifies all signals by a constant factor regardless of the depth, TGC – Time Gain Compensation; Ability to compensate for the attenuation of the transmittal beam as the sound wave travels through tissue in the body. (877) 490-7036 toll free (408) 278-9300 local (408) 278-9797 fax. Focus zones and position (this is the most often-overlooked image optimization feature). Lung damage, hemorrhage that may result from the thermal, mechanical, or cavitational effects of US, has been reported in the past but with acoustic pressure levels of at least 1 MPa, well above LIPUS parameters proposed here, and these effects are dependent on the frequency, pulse duration, pulse repetition frequency, and exposure duration. Symbol: PRF Unit: kilohertz (kHz), megahertz (MHz), Hertz (Hz) Formula: PRF (kHz) = 1/PRP(ms) For example; To capture the best image possible, adjust the frequency setting and use the highest possible frequency setting that allows you to see the anatomy you’re viewing. That would have been a logical choice; however this setting has been standardized by manufacturers to visualize the structures of the Deep Venous System. A radar system uses a radio frequency electromagnetic signal reflected from a target to deter… The idea is to have lower gain in the near field and higher gain deeper in the image where image quality is weaker. \0 to 15 em, with a pulse repetition frequency ranging from 15.6 to 20.4 kHz. Did you select the Venous preset available with a linear transducer? long, Doppler pulses ~ 5-20 cycles long. Unfortunately, using high PRF Doppler makes it difficult to determine the location of the velocities recorded. http://www.theaudiopedia.com What is PULSE REPETITION FREQUENCY? This causes incremental degrees of smoothing to the ultrasound image. High-Pulse Repetition Frequency Doppler • High-Pulse repetition frequency Doppler is a form of pulsed Doppler that shares some similarities with CW Doppler. PRF is determined by the speed of sound and the distance it must travel. This means that image quality including lateral resolution is maximized at that level. 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